Example 1.1: Calculation of Density

Example 1.1b: Calculation of Density

Example 1.2: Using Displacement of Water to Determine Density

Example 1.2b: Using Displacement of Water to Determine Density

Example 1.3: Rounding Numbers

Example 1.3b: Rounding Numbers

Example 1.4: Addition and Subtraction with Significant Figures

Example 1.4b: Addition and Subtraction with Significant Figures

Example 1.5: Multiplication and Division with Significant Figures

Example 1.5b: Multiplication and Division with Significant Figures

Example 1.6: Calculation with Significant Figures

Example 1.6b: Calculation with Significant Figures

Example 1.7: Experimental Determination of Density Using Water Displacement

Example 1.7b: Experimental Determination of Density Using Water Displacement

Example 1.8: Using a Unit Conversion Factor

Example 1.8b: Using a Unit Conversion Factor

Example 1.9: Computing Quantities from Measurement Results and Known Mathematical Relations

Example 1.9b: Computing Quantities from Measurement Results and Known Mathematical Relations

Example 1.10: Computing Quantities from Measurement Results and Known Mathematical Relations

Example 1.10b: Computing Quantities from Measurement Results and Known Mathematical Relations

Example 1.11: Conversion from Celsius

Example 1.11b: Conversion from Celsius

Example 1.12: Conversion from Fahrenheit

Example 1.12b: Conversion from Fahrenheit

Example 2.1: Testing Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Example 2.1b: Testing Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Example 2.2: Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions

Example 2.3: Composition of an Atom

Example 2.3b: Composition of an Atom

Example 2.4: Calculation of Average Atomic Mass

Example 2.4b: Calculation of Average Atomic Mass

Example 2.5: Calculation of Percent Abundance

Example 2.5b: Calculation of Percent Abundance

Example 2.6: Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Example 2.6b: Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Example 2.7: Naming Groups of Elements

Example 2.7b: Naming Groups of Elements

Example 2.8: Composition of Ions

Example 2.8b: Composition of Ions

Example 2.9: Formation of Ions

Example 2.9b: Formation of Ions

Example 2.10: Predicting the Formula of an Ionic Compound

Example 2.10b: Predicting the Formula of an Ionic Compound

Example 2.11: Predicting the Formula of a Compound with a Polyatomic Anion

Example 2.11b: Predicting the Formula of a Compound with a Polyatomic Anion

Example 2.12: Predicting the Type of Bonding in Compounds

Example 2.12b: Predicting the Type of Bonding in Compounds

Example 2.13: Naming Ionic Compounds

Example 2.13b: Naming Ionic Compounds

Example 2.14: Naming Covalent Compounds

Example 2.14b: Naming Covalent Compounds

Example 3.1: Computing Molecular Mass for a Covalent Compound

Example 3.1b: Computing Molecular Mass for a Covalent Compound

Example 3.2: Computing Formula Mass for an Ionic Compound

Example 3.2b: Computing Formula Mass for an Ionic Compound

Example 3.3: Deriving Moles from Grams for an Element

Example 3.3b: Deriving Moles from Grams for an Element

Example 3.4: Deriving Grams from Moles for an Element

Example 3.4b: Deriving Grams from Moles for an Element

Example 3.5: Deriving Number of Atoms from Mass for an Element

Example 3.5b: Deriving Number of Atoms from Mass for an Element

Example 3.6: Deriving Moles from Grams for a Compound

Example 3.6b: Deriving Moles from Grams for a Compound

Example 3.7: Deriving Grams from Moles for a Compound

Example 3.7b: Deriving Grams from Moles for a Compound

Example 3.8: Deriving the Number of Atoms and Molecules from the Mass of a Compound

Example 3.8b: Deriving the Number of Atoms and Molecules from the Mass of a Compound

Example 3.9: Calculation of Percent Composition

Example 3.9b: Calculation of Percent Composition

Example 3.10: Determining Percent Composition from a Molecular Formula

Example 3.10b: Determining Percent Composition from a Molecular Formula

Example 3.11: Determining a Compound’s Empirical Formula from the Masses of Its Elements

Example 3.11b: Determining a Compound’s Empirical Formula from the Masses of Its Elements

Example 3.12: Determining an Empirical Formula from Percent Composition

Example 3.12b: Determining an Empirical Formula from Percent Composition

Example 3.13: Determination of the Molecular Formula for Nicotine

Example 3.13b: Determination of the Molecular Formula for Nicotine

Example 3.14: Calculating Molar Concentrations

Example 3.14b: Calculating Molar Concentrations

Example 3.15: Deriving Moles and Volumes from Molar Concentrations

Example 3.15b: Deriving Moles and Volumes from Molar Concentrations

Example 3.16: Calculating Molar Concentrations from the Mass of Solute

Example 3.16b: Calculating Molar Concentrations from the Mass of Solute

Example 3.17: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17b: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17c: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17d: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17e: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17f: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17g: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17h: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17i: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17j: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17k: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17m: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17n: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17q: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.17v: Determining the Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution

Example 3.18: Determining the Volume of Solution Containing a Given Mass of Solute

Example 3.18b: Determining the Volume of Solution Containing a Given Mass of Solute

Example 3.19: Determining the Concentration of a Diluted Solution

Example 3.19b: Determining the Concentration of a Diluted Solution

Example 3.20: Volume of a Diluted Solution

Example 3.20b: Volume of a Diluted Solution

Example 3.21: Volume of a Concentrated Solution Needed for Dilution

Example 3.21b: Volume of a Concentrated Solution Needed for Dilution

Example 3.22: Calculation of Percent by Mass

Example 3.22b: Calculation of Percent by Mass

Example 3.23: Calculations using Mass Percentage

Example 3.23b: Calculations using Mass Percentage

Example 3.24: Calculations using Volume Percentage

Example 3.24b: Calculations using Volume Percentage

Example 3.25: Calculation of Parts per Million and Parts per Billion Concentrations

Example 3.25b: Calculation of Parts per Million and Parts per Billion Concentrations

Example 4.1: Balancing Chemical Equations

Example 4.1b: Balancing Chemical Equations

Example 4.2: Molecular and Ionic Equations

Example 4.2b: Molecular and Ionic Equations

Example 4.3: Predicting Precipitation Reactions

Example 4.3b: Predicting Precipitation Reactions

Example 4.4: Writing Equations for Acid-Base Reactions

Example 4.4b: Writing Equations for Acid-Base Reactions

Example 4.5: Assigning Oxidation Numbers

Example 4.5b: Assigning Oxidation Numbers

Example 4.6: Describing Redox Reactions

Example 4.6b: Describing Redox Reactions

Example 4.7: Balancing Redox Reactions in Acidic Solution

Example 4.7b: Balancing Redox Reactions in Acidic Solution

Example 4.8: Moles of Reactant Required in a Reaction

Example 4.8b: Moles of Reactant Required in a Reaction

Example 4.9: Number of Product Molecules Generated by a Reaction

Example 4.9b: Number of Product Molecules Generated by a Reaction

Example 4.10: Relating Masses of Reactants and Products

Example 4.10b: Relating Masses of Reactants and Products

Example 4.11: Relating Masses of Reactants

Example 4.11b: Relating Masses of Reactants

Example 4.12: Identifying the Limiting Reactant

Example 4.12b: Identifying the Limiting Reactant

Example 4.13: Calculation of Percent Yield

Example 4.13b: Calculation of Percent Yield

Example 4.14: Titration Analysis

Example 4.14b: Titration Analysis

Example 4.15: Gravimetric Analysis

Example 4.15b: Gravimetric Analysis

Example 4.16: Combustion Analysis

Example 4.16b: Combustion Analysis

Example 5.1: Measuring Heat

Example 5.1b: Measuring Heat

Example 5.2: Determining Other Quantities

Example 5.2b: Determining Other Quantities

Example 5.3: Heat Transfer between Substances at Different Temperatures

Example 5.3b: Heat Transfer between Substances at Different Temperatures

Example 5.4: Identifying a Metal by Measuring Specific Heat

Example 5.4b: Identifying a Metal by Measuring Specific Heat

Example 5.5b: Heat Produced by an Exothermic Reaction

Example 5.6: Heat Flow in an Instant Ice Pack

Example 5.6b: Heat Flow in an Instant Ice Pack

Example 5.7: Bomb Calorimetry

Example 5.7b: Bomb Calorimetry

Example 5.8: Measurement of an Enthalpy Change

Example 5.8b: Measurement of an Enthalpy Change

Example 5.9: Another Example of the Measurement of an Enthalpy Change

Example 5.9b: Another Example of the Measurement of an Enthalpy Change

Example 5.10: Using Enthalpy of Combustion

Example 5.10b: Using Enthalpy of Combustion

Example 5.11: Evaluating an Enthalpy of Formation

Example 5.11b: Evaluating an Enthalpy of Formation

Example 5.12: Writing Reaction Equations for ΔHf°

Example 5.12b: Writing Reaction Equations for ΔHf°

Example 5.13: Stepwise Calculation of ΔHf° Using Hess’s Law

Example 5.13b: Stepwise Calculation of ΔHf° Using Hess’s Law

Example 5.14: A More Challenging Problem Using Hess’s Law

Example 5.14b: A More Challenging Problem Using Hess’s Law

Example 5.15: Using Hess’s Law

Example 5.15b: Using Hess’s Law

Example 6.1: Determining the Frequency and Wavelength of Radiation

Example 6.1b: Determining the Frequency and Wavelength of Radiation

Example 6.2: Calculating the Energy of Radiation

Example 6.2b: Calculating the Energy of Radiation

Example 6.3: Photoelectric Effect

Example 6.3b: Photoelectric Effect

Example 6.4: Calculating the Energy of an Electron in a Bohr Orbit

Example 6.4b: Calculating the Energy of an Electron in a Bohr Orbit

Example 6.5: Calculating the Energy and Wavelength of Electron Transitions in a One–electron (Bohr) System

Example 6.5b: Calculating the Energy and Wavelength of Electron Transitions in a One–electron (Bohr) System

Example 6.6: Calculating the Wavelength of a Particle

Example 6.6b: Calculating the Wavelength of a Particle

Example 6.7: Working with Shells and Subshells

Example 6.8: Maximum Number of Electrons

Example 6.10: Quantum Numbers and Electron Configurations

Example 6.11: Predicting Electron Configurations of Ions

Example 6.12: Sorting Atomic Radii

Example 6.13: Ranking Ionization Energies

Example 7.1: Determining the Electronic Structures of Cations

Example 7.2: Determining the Electronic Structure of Anions

Example 7.3: Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

Example 7.4: Writing Lewis Structures

Example 7.5: Writing Lewis Structures: Octet Rule Violations

Example 7.6: Calculating Formal Charge from Lewis Structures

Example 7.7: Calculating Formal Charge from Lewis Structures

Example 7.8: Using Formal Charge to Determine Molecular Structure

Example 7.9: Using Bond Energies to Calculate Approximate Enthalpy Changes

Example 7.10: Lattice Energy Comparisons

Example 7.11: Predicting Electron-pair Geometry and Molecular Structure: CO2 and BCl3

Example 7.12: Predicting Electron-pair Geometry and Molecular Structure: Ammonium

Example 7.13: Predicting Electron-pair Geometry and Molecular Structure: Lone Pairs on the Central Atom

Example 7.14: Predicting Electron-pair Geometry and Molecular Structure: SF4

Example 7.15: Predicting Electron-pair Geometry and Molecular Structure: XeF4

Example 7.16: Predicting Structure in Multicenter Molecules

Example 7.17: Molecular Simulation

Example 7.18: Polarity Simulations

Example 9.1: Conversion of Pressure Units

Example 9.1b: Conversion of Pressure Units

Example 9.2: Calculation of Barometric Pressure

Example 9.2b: Calculation of Barometric Pressure

Example 9.3: Calculation of Pressure Using a Closed-End Manometer

Example 9.3b: Calculation of Pressure Using a Closed-End Manometer

Example 9.4: Calculation of Pressure Using an Open-End Manometer

Example 9.4b: Calculation of Pressure Using an Open-End Manometer

Example 9.5: Predicting Change in Pressure with Temperature

Example 9.5b: Predicting Change in Pressure with Temperature

Example 9.6: Predicting Change in Volume with Temperature

Example 9.6b: Predicting Change in Volume with Temperature

Example 9.7: Measuring Temperature with a Volume Change

Example 9.7b: Measuring Temperature with a Volume Change

Example 9.8: Volume of a Gas Sample

Example 9.8b: Volume of a Gas Sample

Example 9.9: Using the Ideal Gas Law

Example 9.9b: Using the Ideal Gas Law

Example 9.10: Using the Combined Gas Law

Example 9.10b: Using the Combined Gas Law

Example 9.11: Derivation of a Density Formula from the Ideal Gas Law

Example 9.11b: Derivation of a Density Formula from the Ideal Gas Law

Example 9.12: Empirical/Molecular Formula Problems Using the Ideal Gas Law and Density of a Gas

Example 9.12b: Empirical/Molecular Formula Problems Using the Ideal Gas Law and Density of a Gas

Example 9.13: Determining the Molar Mass of a Volatile Liquid

Example 9.13b: Determining the Molar Mass of a Volatile Liquid

Example 9.14: The Pressure of a Mixture of Gases

Example 9.14b: The Pressure of a Mixture of Gases

Example 9.15: The Pressure of a Mixture of Gases

Example 9.15b: The Pressure of a Mixture of Gases

Example 9.16: Pressure of a Gas Collected Over Water

Example 9.16b: Pressure of a Gas Collected Over Water

Example 9.17: Reaction of Gases

Example 9.17b: Reaction of Gases

Example 9.18: Volumes of Reacting Gases

Example 9.18b: Volumes of Reacting Gases

Example 9.19: Volume of Gaseous Product

Example 9.19b: Volume of Gaseous Product

Example 9.50: Backward fading part 1

Example 9.50b: Backward fading part 2

Example 9.51b: Backward fading, part 3

Example 9.52b: Backward fading, part 4

Example 13.1: Ion Concentrations in Pure Water

Example 13.1b: Ion Concentrations in Pure Water

Example 13.2: The Inverse Proportionality of [H3O+] and [OH−]

Example 13.3: Representing the Acid-Base Behavior of an Amphoteric Substance

Example 13.3b: Representing the Acid-Base Behavior of an Amphoteric Substance

Example 13.4: Calculation of pH from [H3O+]

Example 13.4b: Calculation of pH from [H3O+]

Example 13.5: Calculation of Hydronium Ion Concentration from pH

Example 13.5b: Calculation of Hydronium Ion Concentration from pH

Example 13.6: Calculation of pOH

Example 13.6b: Calculation of pOH

Example 13.7: Calculation of Percent Ionization from pH

Example 13.7b: Calculation of Percent Ionization from pH

Example 13.8: The Product K_a * K_b = K_w

Example 13.8b: The Product K_a * K_b = K_w

Example 13.9: Determination of K_a from Equilibrium Concentrations

Example 13.9b: Determination of Ka from Equilibrium Concentrations

Example 13.10: Determination of Kb from Equilibrium Concentrations

Example 13.10b: Determination of Kb from Equilibrium Concentrations

Example 13.11: Determination of Ka or Kb from pH

Example 13.11b: Determination of Ka or Kb from pH

Example 13.12: Equilibrium Concentrations in a Solution of a Weak Acid

Example 13.12b: Equilibrium Concentrations in a Solution of a Weak Acid

Example 13.20: pH Changes in Buffered and Unbuffered Solutions

Example 13.20b: pH Changes in Buffered and Unbuffered Solutions

Example 13.21: Calculating pH for Titration Solutions: Strong Acid+Strong Base

Example 13.21b: Calculating pH for Titration Solutions: Strong Acid/Strong Base

Example 16.1: Redistribution of Matter during a Spontaneous Process

Example 16.1b: Redistribution of Matter during a Spontaneous Process

Example 16.2: Determination of ΔS

Example 16.2b: Determination of ΔS

Example 16.3: Predicting the Sign of ∆S

Example 16.3b: Predicting the Sign of ∆S

Example 16.4: Will Ice Spontaneously Melt?

Example 16.4b: Will Ice Spontaneously Melt?

Example 16.5: Determination of ΔS°

Example 16.5b: Determination of ΔS°

Example 16.6: Determination of ΔS°

Example 16.6b: Determination of ΔS°

Example 16.7: Evaluation of ΔG° Change from ΔH° and ΔS°

Example 16.7b: Evaluation of ΔG° Change from ΔH° and ΔS°

Example 16.8: Calculation of ΔG298°

Example 17.1: Balancing Acidic Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Example J.1: Area of a table

Example J.1b: Area of a table

Example J.2: Circumference of a table

Example J.2b: Circumference of a table

Example J.3: Sharing

Example J.3b: Candy calculation

Solution